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Energy storage: transform the power industry from "generating electricity" to "using electricity"

Large  Small Date:2021-09-22  From:ICC Battery
Under the requirements of the 2030 carbon peak and the 2060 carbon neutral goal, the central government has made it clear that a new power system with new energy as the main body will be established in the future, and the long-term development path of photovoltaic and wind power will be established in the future. The annual installed capacity of photovoltaic and wind will reach 120GW during the 14th Five-Year-Plan.
 
The rapid increase in new energy installations, due to the instability of photovoltaics and wind power, under the guidance of policies, energy storage systems have become standard equipment. 
 
Nearly 20 provinces in China have introduced supporting policies for “new energy + energy storage”; The proportion of new photovoltaic and wind power projects equipped with energy storage is mostly between 10% and 20%, and the energy storage time is generally required to be more than 2 hours.
 
The current power structure in China:
 
Under the guidance of the carbon “30·60” top-level target, the proportion of electricity in final energy consumption needs to be increased from less than 25% to nearly 50%. On the other hand, in the power installation structure, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics and wind power will gradually replace traditional thermal power installations. Energy transition is the only way for economies to achieve long-term carbon emissions targets; and if they want to achieve net zero emissions, the proportion of renewable energy consumption needs to be increased to about 30%. Energy transformation has a long way to go.
 
New energy supporting energy storage has gradually become standard equipment everywhere, and the goal of carbon neutrality opens up room for growth in power storage. The energy storage system is mainly composed of batteries, electrical components, thermal management systems, energy storage converters (PCS), energy management systems (EMS), and battery management systems (BMS).
 
The battery cells and electrical components are arranged and connected to form a battery module, and then fixed and assembled into the cabinet together with other components to form a battery cabinet. As the cost of energy storage systems declines, the growth rate of the industry will accelerate. In the entire system, the cost of batteries accounts for 50 to 60%.


 
1) Power generation: new energy + energy storage reduces the volatility of new energy power generation and improves the quality of wind and solar power;
2) Grid: provide peak and frequency modulation capabilities to smooth the fluctuations between the power consumption end and the power generation end;
3) Power users:
  • Household photovoltaic + energy storage: cut peaks and fill valleys to meet stable power demand;
  • 5G base station + energy storage: standby power requirements to ensure stable operation of the base station;
  • IDC+ energy storage: standby power requirements to ensure stable operation of the data center;
  • Charging pile + energy storage: solve the pressure on the grid caused by disorderly charging and the pressure on the cost caused by peak charging;

The development of energy storage can be divided into three stages:
  1. During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period: the issue of power constraints does not constitute a major contradiction. Energy storage is a standard configuration for wind and solar development, with a low allocation ratio, and solar storage is close to parity.
  2. New energy has become the main source of energy, gradually replacing thermal power, and the stability of the grid urgently needs a large amount of energy storage; the configuration ratio and backup time have increased, the solar + storage is fully parity, and the demand for energy storage is rapidly increasing.
  3. After the carbon reaches its peak, energy storage will replace thermal power in the grid side and assume the main power grid peak and frequency regulation responsibilities.

The power system is the largest application scenario for energy storage. The impact of energy structure transformation on the power grid is the underlying logic of energy storage on the power generation, transmission, and distribution side. The application of new scenarios such as 5G base stations and "optical storage and charging" integrated charging stations will increase demand. quantity.
 
On the power consumption side: the cost of energy storage per kilowatt-hour is about 0.51 yuan/kWh, and there is basically room for arbitrage in industrial and commercial/large-industrial scenarios.
 
On the transmission and distribution side: the cost of energy storage mileage is about 3.93 yuan/MW, and there is basically room for profit in the power auxiliary service market.
 
On the power generation side: The current configuration of energy storage is already economical, and the project yield has basically reached the requirement of 8%.
 
With compulsory supporting policies superimposed on economic inflection points, the installed capacity of new energy side energy storage will continue to increase. In the long run, there is still a lot of room for improvement in wind and solar power generation technology and electrochemical storage technology, and the subsequent new energy + energy storage parity will also become a historical necessity.
 
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